Formative evaluation takes place when programs are being developed and implemented. This type of evaluation gives clients feedback about strengths and weaknesses in program implementation that may affect whether intended outcomes will be achieved. The purpose of formative feedback is to share information and build clients’ understanding of their programs in ways that will help improve them.
Summative evaluation assesses the extent to which anticipated program outcomes have been attained and whether reported outcomes can be attributed to the observed interventions. Summative evaluation also assesses the conditions that shaped program implementation. This type of evaluation is the basis for making inferences about the value of continuing, expanding, and/or replicating the intervention.
Participatory evaluation is an approach that provides opportunities for teachers, students, and other stakeholders to integrate their priorities and perspectives into evaluation design, data collection, and interpretation of findings.